The Sixteenth Amendment

A Question of Legitimacy

Christmas Eve, 1913. The United States Congress. An amendment was pushed through when few if any were paying attention. From that day forward, Americans have been paying an income tax that may or may not have been legitimately ratified. Moreover, the United States had paved roads, public schools, and a workable sense of law and order before the income tax, which begs the question: What exactly are we paying for? According to President Reagan’s Blue Ribbon Panel Grace Commission,

“One hundred percent of what is collected is absorbed solely by interest on the federal debt. All individual income tax revenues are gone before one nickel is spent on the services taxpayers expect from government.” 

statue of eagle

What we are paying for, then, is the government’s debt to the federal reserve which prints and distributes the money and charges our government – us – interest for so doing. Questions abound. Why does our government not print its own money? They certainly have the power to do so. Further, was the amendment even properly ratified or is it unconstitutional? There are serious defects in the ratification process of this amendment; enough to cast doubt on its legitimacy. Typographical errors alone would have been enough to make the process null and void.*

For the sake of argument, let’s say it was ratified with no problems. Now turn to Article One, Section Nine of the Constitution and note that it is, in fact, unconstitutional to tax citizens directly on their property, wages, salaries, or earnings. Moreover, Supreme Court judges have repeatedly rejected claims that the amendment actually amended the constitution in regards to limits on direct taxation.**

We are on unstable ground to say the least, but tax day finds us year after year and red and yellow, black and white had better fill out those aggravating forms. When you do, remember this: The day the Sixteenth Amendment was passed is the day we all became debt slaves; some are simply more clever at padding the chains and avoiding the whip though we all remain in servitude. If it’s equality you want, thank the bankers for making it possible. We are all owned, from the day we are born, in equal shares by our government which in turn is owned by the bankers who print our meaningless money. There’s your equality; isn’t it grand? I recently overheard a day-dreaming liberal muse, anything that moves us closer to equality is good. Anything? I urge you, be careful what you wish for.


*See Document no. 97-120 of the 97th Congress, First Session, entitled How Our Laws Are Made, written by Edward F. Willet, Jr. Esq.
**For an example, see Brushaber vs. Union Pacific.

Rachel Summers